Panthera pardus kotiya

Common name



They live in a wide variety of environments, savannahs, wooded areas and forests and jungles. It also lives in mountainous and desert areas.


Subfamily: Pantherinae






97 days.

Number of offspring





They generally hunt medium-sized ungulates, such as antelopes, gazelles, deer, pigs or cattle, and also primates. As good opportunistic carnivores that they are, they also feed on birds, reptiles, rodents or arthropods. They prefer prey between 10-40 kg. They have also been observed stealing food from other animals, such as cheetahs, solitary hyenas and other small carnivores.


10-12 years in the wild, up to 20-22 in captivity.

Biology and behavior

The leopard has very dilatable pupils that allow it to see both in the dark and during the day. It has strong muscles in its extremities that act on its retractable and very hard nails, thus being able to easily climb trees with more vertical trunks. Its long tail perfectly balances the carnivore in the large jumps it makes while hunting or chasing prey.

Its fur is perfectly camouflaged among the grass and bushes, as well as in the chiaroscuro of the foliage of the trees where it usually spends the day.

They live solitary except during the mating season. We cannot speak of territory in a strict sense, but rather of an individual's range. Encounters between males are often bloody, while mothers, children and siblings seem to tolerate each other.

Hunt preferably at night. The hunting tactic is adjusted to two modalities: stalking and stalking. The leopards' largest prey is hidden high in the trees to avoid theft by hyenas and lions, and to protect them from vultures.

The leopard eats with exquisite cleanliness, barely staining itself and without tearing the piece, which, little by little, is reduced to an empty skin that lies on the ground or hangs from the fork of an acacia tree. If there is a pond or a stream near the feast, he sometimes interrupts his meal for a few moments and approaches to drink, but if the nearest water is at a certain distance he does not do so until his hunger is satisfied.


There are specimens that present a genetic mutation called melanism, which makes the coat appear completely black, however under certain reflections of light, the characteristic black spots can be observed.

Contrary to popular belief, black leopards or panthers are not more ferocious than their spotted counterparts; it simply happens that their appearance is more threatening. However, melanism does seem to provide an advantage when it comes to camouflage in areas of danger. dense forests.

Whether in its melanic or spotted form, the leopard's beautiful fur has made this animal a prized trophy for poachers. Man is its main enemy: during the early 60s in East Africa, some 50.000 animals died to satisfy the demand for the fur trade.

BIOPARC Valencia's leopards belong to the Sri Lankan subspecies, Panthera pardus kotiya, and are part of an international breeding program to establish a viable and self-sustaining population to safeguard the existence of this beautiful, endangered subspecies.

African savanna
Equatorial jungle
Madagascar Island